Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Technology Society and Environment

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Subject: MHJ5533
Institute: Open University of Sri Lanka
Author: K.K.T Madhusanka

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Question: 01
“Human is the element of environment and environment is not element of human” in this sentence we met a basic clear idea about conjunction between human life and environment. After evaluations of human being he invented several machines and innovations to be easily launch their day to day usages. All of raw materials were taken from natural environment to produce goods and services and that was basic requirement of developing society. According to the developing economic production system was rotated step by step following points.
·         Extraction
·         Production
·         Distribution
·         Consumption
·         Disposal
I’m not going to discuss such production, consumption process but I want to prove that engineering is not only technical and it is directly making relationship of technology with environment and society. Therefore I have to slightly describe such points. Human is not finite in his mind. According to the Maslow’s hierarchy theory human move his needs and wants exactly and unlimitedly. Therefore at all time society request new thing. Hence business organizations try to produce productions using new technology and to produce required goods they collect raw materials from natural resources. For an example I can explain television and here plastic were taken from byproduct of petroleum refining process, and for circuit manufacturing copper is extracted from Coppermine. For transistors and IC chips is produced using semiconductors like silicon, germanium are extracted from earth. Now I would like to explain another example and it is vehicles and to produce vehicles, metals are extracted from earth. And also to run engines of vehicles uses diesel and patrols are refined from crude oil and this petroleum is obtained from earth. Therefore I can prove technology is not independent subject and it always alternatively combined with environment and society.

Above I have explained only relationship of technology and environment but now I wish to describe relationship between technology and society by examples. The first example is train and train is basic transportation media of Sri Lanka. It helps to travel to people here and there specially in morning and evening time working people travel to office and home by train. Train is a result of technology but it is essential part of our society. If railway department has strike due to some reason trains are not run in that day hence, certain amount of population unable to travel so far in real time then it is directly affect to whole society. Next example is internet and here facebook is the social media network that provided by USA. But I remember in last month few days facebook was blocked due to curfew of upcountry of Sri Lanka. And in after that society discussed about this topic and some parties were gone to human rights for these blocks oppose the government. Then I can prove internet and although social networks in technology, it is an essential part of society. 
Question: 02
In this question I’m act as a judge and hope to give my judgment of engineering student research project assessment. Here I have received four projects and I wish to give my personal opinion by giving reasons. Here I have scheduled seven criteria and maximum 4 points and minimum 1 point for each one by comparing its suitability. And sometimes intermediary points may be offered occasionally between 4 to 1 points.   
i. A project to design and manufacture a pineapple peeling machine to replace peeling by manual labour.
Mark Schedule
No
Point Awarded Criteria
Points
1
Sustainability
2
2
Equity
2
3
Green chemistry and Eco Friendly
4
4
Zero waste
3
5
Close loop production
4
6
Renewable energy
3
7
Local living economics
4
……………………………………………………Total Points
22

In here firstly considered sustainability and it was marked as point 02. The main reason it is not rather permanently growing project and some parts of people not use it repeatedly but it is useful for food processing business. Next was taken as equity and it is not equally use in society hence 02 points were given. Next criteria were green chemistry and Eco friendly. An here sometimes may use electric power to operate such machine instead human power, and here was not commonly use toxic chemicals therefore 04 points were awarded. Next criteria were zero waste and I can’t say it is zero waste in pineapple peeling process but I can say it wills minimum waste hence 03 points were awarded. Next criteria was renewable energy and to operate this machine may use hydroelectric power and I think it is renewable power source usage therefore it had been awarded 04 points. As final criteria local living economics was considered. According to my knowledge it means ability to produce in locally using local resources and local technical knowledge. I suppose it can be done without getting foreign resources and it was awarded 04 points. By comparing next competitors I hope to review this student’s project.

ii. A project to produce biodiesel using papaya seeds.
Mark Schedule
No
Point Awarded Criteria
Points
1
Sustainability
3
2
Equity
4
3
Green chemistry and Eco Friendly
3
4
Zero waste
3
5
Close loop production
3
6
Renewable energy
4
7
Local living economics
4
…………………………………………………….Total Points
24

Image result for dieselHere first point was sustainability and here I think this project is somewhat strength because sometimes continuously papaya seed harvests not come in to market due to market. But this will not fully affected in to market because producer can store excessive harvest to avoid this problem and here was offered 03 points for this criteria. Next criteria are equity and here I think it had equity and it is essential to solve fuel crisis and some scientists have predicated and forecasted it will decay petroleum in after year of 2060 in the earth. I think this project is most suitable concept and was awarded 04 points for this. Next criteria were green chemistry and Eco friendly things, and although this project has green chemicals may harmful to environment when burning diesel carbon. But in biodiesel may Eco friendly than crude oil therefore 03 points were offered. Another criteria is zero waste and it is depends on usage and carbon and chemical burning level of engines but I think it is somewhat near to the zero waste hence, 03 points were given. Close loop production depends on market situation of papaya seeds harvest hence 03 points were offered. In renewable energy criteria I can accept 100% and was offered 04 points. Final criteria was local living criteria and it can be tolerated because in Sri Lanka has local harvest hence need not to be taken foreign resources therefore 04 points are given. By comparing next competitors I hope to review this student’s project.…………
iii. A project to early detect kidney deceases that is common in the dry zone by image processing of a person’s iris in the eye.          
Mark Schedule
No
Point Awarded Criteria
Points
1
Sustainability
2
2
Equity
4
3
Green chemistry and Eco Friendly
4
4
Zero waste
4
5
Close loop production
2
6
Renewable energy
3
7
Local living economics
4
…………………………………………………….Total Points
23

In this project I hope to refer fist criteria. And it was sustainability and here this project depends on society requirement in Sri Lanka we have met growth of kidney diseases and in this project student try to find cost effective method. But in here reliability depends on output of project and cannot be predicated certainly so it is disadvantages to projects sustainability and therefore 02 points were awarded. Next thing was equity and in this criteria and in this I have to give full points because it is major requirement of dry zone of Sri Lanka. And next was green chemistry and eco friendly and in this project was given full points because it is not harmful to environment. Next was considered zero waste and this project is good services and can be supposed it has zero waste. Next criteria was close loop production and it is not fulfill with this project but it is depends on project launching process. Therefore due to this reason 02 points were offered. Another criteria was renewable energy and it is depend on usage power sources aided tools but here human power is renewable and can be work more and more hence 03 points were given. Final was local living economy and this method is more cost effective and there are no foreign technology and specialized knowledge required hence, 04 points were awarded. By comparing each and next competitors I hope to review this student’s project.
iv. A project to decide the best location for a nuclear power plant to be constructed in Sri Lanka.
Mark Schedule
No
Point Awarded Criteria
Points
1
Sustainability
4
2
Equity
3
3
Green chemistry and Eco Friendly
1
4
Zero waste
1
5
Close loop production
4
6
Renewable energy
1
7
Local living economics
2
…………………………………………………….Total Points
16

In this project Firstly I have considered sustainability and was awarded full points because this is permanent and permanently cost effective project. Next criteria was equity and it is normal because our country has higher electric consumption and demand therefore 03 points were awarded. Next criteria is green chemistry and eco friendly and in this project use nucleic chemicals such as uranium, plutonium releases large amounts of harmful radiant. Not only that it increase air temperature and pollute water even several kilometers but our country is small island therefore I think this project is very harmful to environment. Due to the toxic chemicals human body affect cancers, kidney issues, etc. Hence 01 point was offered. Under the zero wastes cannot be given points because in the bombardment of uranium in the nucleic reaction, change harmful molecules cannot dispose or recycle. Therefore 01 point was offered. Close loop production is another marking point and here continuously process of nucleic reactions can be taken after project launch and hence, full point value was offered. Next criteria is renewable energy and we all know uranium is not recyclable and renewable. Therefore 01 point was offered for this topic. Final criteria is local living economics are changing to purchasing process of uranium and here uranium is not produced in Sri Lanka and have to purchase in USA. But some auxiliaries can be found in locally hence money is exchanging to foreign market. So, 01 points was offered under this topic.  And I think this project is not suitability to apply in Sri Lanka due to lack of space. And here observed points were smaller than other 03 projects. Therefore I have to reject this project from competition and other three medal winners are tabulated below and finalized my answer.       

Question: 03
(a.)
Sometimes someone may conclude term “Gender” and “Sex” are similar words. But in depth of distribution, we met difference between sex and gender. Men and women are sexual lives and it is biological classification and it always used to classify their sexuality based biological activities. In another way I can explain humans are biological lives. Therefore need to procreation and we identify both 02 groups are called man and women. Commonly called for this as term “Sex”. It means women are sexually female. Man is belonging to sexually male. This classification is biological classification. Some body parts of female body are different from male body and it is help to keep continuous of human life through sexual attraction between both male and female.

Gender
Previously I discussed about male and female based sex and sexuality only but human is not individual live and he/ she is a part of society and culture. This culture and society based sexuality called gender. For an example nurse and in Sri Lanka nurse mostly female but in here not discuss sexuality but only discuss nurse and her society and occupation based role but we know her gender hence, we called she is a nurse. Another example is train driver. In Sri Lanka, when we are talking about train driver we always imagine about male person and we never think about female. Finally I can say “Sex” is biological classification and “Gender” is social and cultural classification in society for men and women.  

Question: 03
(b.)
In history of Sri Lanka men were earned money and women were done any kitchen function with home. But at the present culture conventional function has been changed outside and it means women are not limited and their functions and role has been very complex in culture and society.
As a mother
Mother not only gives birth to children and she is a first teacher of children. In present society and her womanhood has divided different responsibilities of children such as nutrition, schooling, evening classes, and other children based functions, etc.
As a wife
In history father based decision were seen in home culture and today it is mothers decision based home culture can be seen. It means as a wife she controls each decisions making and each function based home control.
As a daughter and education
In past culture women were not allowed for education by culture. But today as a daughter and young girls are educated than male. It means girls are more dedicate and clever to learn hence, can be moved more fields of education. For an example when we considering engineering faculty most registered students at OUSL are female.
As a worker
Today most women are educated and they have spread different industry. For an example in textile industry there are 90% of sewing machine operators are female workers. Apart this here I hope to tabulate several occupation based with women.
Work
Description
Nurse
In government hospitals most are female than male nurse.
Doctors
Today female doctors can be seen commonly on hospitals sometime as a specialist. 
Teachers
Someone says word “TEACHER” we think in to our mind quickly female. Because in Sri Lanka most teachers are female.
Air hostess
In airport workers air hostess are female and young girls. And she coordinates and keeps our country prestige among foreigner.
Officers
Most government offices are female. For an example most staff members of government offices are female. Not only that in police department and forces of Sri Lanka women are employing at each operations.



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